These questions test a lot of things so use them carefully.

Firstly there is what do we understand about reciprocals, namely:

These are tricky concepts to grasp. This is the order in which I teach them, but I don’t think the “flow” through these 4 concepts is particularly obvious and students need to be carefully led with lots of examples using Mini Whiteboards.

Other understanding required includes:

- Finding equivalent fractions
- Finding common denominators and using them to find the right equivalent fractions
- Adding fractions
- Converting between Mixed Number and Top-Heavy fractions
- Negative fractions

And the last question took me a good 3-4 minutes to convince myself I had the right answer. Which always makes me stop to think – am I being fair to my students here?

## Ideas for better maths teaching